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Efekt 42 195 metrów. Jak pracuje ciało podczas maratonu?

Temperatura rośnie, pompa pracuje coraz szybciej, elektrownie spalają cukier, a przez kominy porów wydobywa się pot. Nie jesteś maszyną, więc odczuwasz wszystkie te procesy. Pojawia się zmęczenie i ból. Zobacz, co dzieje się na 42-kilometrowej trasie w ciele maratończyka.

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. Syda Productions /shutterstock.com

Dobre samopoczucie

Podczas intensywnej aktywności fizycznej przysadka mózgowa (gruczoł podwzgórza) wydziela hormony – endorfiny, które z krwią są dostarczane do całego organizmu, wywołując euforię i zmniejszając wrażliwość na ból (również mięśniowy).

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. Peter Kotoff /shutterstock.com

Temperatura ciała

Organizm zużywa 25% wytwarzanej energii na pracę mięśni. Większość - 75% - jest zamieniana na ciepło i dlatego temperatura ciała podnosi się nawet o 2°C. Osiągnięcie 39°C jest już niebezpieczne i objawia się nudnościami, zawrotami głowy, omdleniem.

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. BackgroundStore /shutterstock.com

Ciśnienie krwi

W trakcie wysiłku objętość krwi w naczyniach zwiększa się, co powoduje ich rozszerzanie. Po biegu ta ilość gwałtownie maleje – naczynia nie kurczą się tak szybko i ciśnienie spada. Dlatego po biegu należy przejść do marszu.  

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. ctrlaplus/shutterstock.com

Równowaga

Bieg pobudza ruchy perystaltyczne jelit, przyspieszając drogę zjedzonych posiłków. Przed maratonem unikaj pokarmów bogatych w błonnik, jak płatki zbożowe, siemię lniane i owoców (szczególnie śliwek). Unikniesz dzięki temu poszukiwań toalety na trasie.  

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. Blazej Lyjak /shutterstock.com

Kwas mlekowy

Duża intensywność wysiłku sprawia, że organizm produkuje kwas mlekowy w takiej ilości, że nie jest w stanie się go pozbyć. Jego nadmiar może zmniejszyć wydajność mięśni, szczególnie podczas ostatnich kilometrów maratonu.  

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. Maridav/shutterstock.com

Wydzielanie potu

Aby unormować temperaturę ciała, gruczoły w skórze wydzielają pot: od prawie litra do nawet 2,5 litra. Razem z nim tracisz wodę i minerały, takie jak sód i potas. Ich niedobór może powodować zmęczenie oraz ból głowy. Dlatego podczas tak długiego i intensywnego wysiłku należy pić napoje izotoniczne i nie omijać punktów żywieniowych.

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. RomanenkoAlexey /shutterstock.com

Osocze krwi

Intensywne pocenie odwadnia organizm, co wpływa na redukcję objętości osocza (płynu, w którym przemieszczają się komórki krwi). Innymi słowy, krew gęstnieje. Podczas biegu regularnie się nawadniaj, w przeciwnym razie zagęszczona krew utrudni sercu pracę.

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. Fine Art/shutterstock.com

Paliwo

Podczas biegu energia czerpana jest z węglowodanów - glukozy krążącej we krwi oraz glikogenu zmagazynowanego w mięśniach. Wiele osób poddaje się na 30 km, po zderzeniu z owianą złą sławą ścianą, ponieważ nie ma już zapasów energii.

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. adike/shutterstock.com

Obrona organizmu

Podczas biegu cały organizm jest skoncentrowany na wysiłku. Odbywa się to kosztem m.in. produkcji białych krwinek, mechanizmów obronnych. Dlatego sportowcy w intensywnym okresie treningowym są bardziej podatni na przeziębienia.

Efekt 42 195 metrów fot. Izf /shutterstock.com

Maraton w liczbach:

Maraton w liczbach

140

średnia liczba uderzeń serca na minutę podczas maratonu

180

średnia liczba uderzeń serca na minutę na ostatniej prostej

70-80

średnie tętno spoczynkowe

3000

średnia ilość kalorii spalanych podczas biegu na dystansie 42 195 m

6%

tyle masy ciała można zgubić podczas maratonu; osoba ważąca 60 kg może go ukończyć, ważąc 56 kg

90%

całkowitej utraconej wagi to płyny; organizm traci też tłuszcz oraz białko, choć w mniejszej ilości

 

RW 06/2012

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