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Mięśnie napędowe

Potężne mięśnie ud i bioder popychają nas do przodu, amortyzują lądowanie po skoku i pomagają utrzymać właściwy rytm biegu. By temu sprostać i nie boleć, muszą być w idealnej formie. Oto, jak ją osiągnąć i utrzymać.
Fot. Noah Greenberg

Każdy biegacz doskonale wie, które części ciała są dla niego ważne. Najdelikatniejsze? Kolana, to jasne. Najbardziej obciążone? Stopy, to oczywiste, świadczą o tym pęcherze i otarcia.

A najsilniejsze? Jeżeli chodzi o szybkość, wytrzymałość i zdolność do pokonywania odległości, nawet dużych, większość z nas bez wątpienia wskaże na uda. I nie bez przyczyny.

To właśnie te mięśnie pozwalają nam (no, przynajmniej niektórym z nas) rozpędzić się do 10 m/s, a innym przebiec bez zatrzymywania dystans 42 kilometrów.


Dwa stawy naraz


Każdy, kto przebiegł już w życiu parę kilometrów, doskonale rozumie, że mięśnie tyłu uda (to one są od przyspieszania) i czworogłowe (one pozwalają zwolnić) to kluczowe elementy "układu napędowego" biegacza. Grupę zwaną mięśniami tyłu uda tworzą trzy mięśnie, które zginają kolano i prostują nogę w biodrze.

Mięsień czworogłowy, położony z przodu uda, to tak naprawdę cztery mięśnie, które prostują i stabilizują kolano oraz amortyzują wstrząsy podczas lądowania na ziemi po skoku."W odróżnieniu od innych mięśni, mięśnie tyłu uda i czworogłowy przechodzą obok dwóch stawów, co oznacza, że biorą udział w "sterowaniu" oboma naraz" - wyjaśnia dr Brian Krabak, specjalista medycyny sportowej i rehabilitacji w słynnym Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Dlatego właśnie kontuzja tych mięśni potrafi bardzo dokuczyć biegaczowi. Wystarczy je rozciągnąć poza granicę ich elastycznej wytrzymałości, a wtedy pojawiają się na nich mikroskopijne pęknięcia. Całkowite rozerwanie włókien mięśnia, czyli tzw. zerwanie mięśnia, to kontuzja bardzo bolesna, występująca zazwyczaj przy gwałtownym przyspieszaniu. Obie te grupy mięśniowe można naciągnąć w wyniku przetrenowania, zbyt intensywnego rozciągania lub ostrego treningu bez odpowiedniej rozgrzewki.

Nierównomierne wzmacnianie mięśni również może być groźne. Jeżeli te z przodu uda są dużo silniejsze niż te z tyłu (często zdarza się to triathlonistom i biegaczom, którzy dużo jeżdżą na rowerze), zbyt silny mięsień czworogłowy może powodować przeciążenie słabszych mięśni dwugłowych.

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